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More BGP

1. Route Dampening It is used to stop unstable routes from being forwarded throughout the network. When a route flaps, a penalty is assigned to the route (Default: 1000 per flap). A timer called Half-Life is used to reduce the penalty value to half (Default: 15 min). If the penalty …

IPv6 Routing

1. Enable IPv6 Routing To enable IPv6 routing, use: This will enable the router to send RAs unsolicited or in response to RS messages. 2. Static Routing To see the routing table, use: 3. RIP for IPv6 RIP for IPv6, aka RIPng, works just like RIPv2 for IPv4. It sends …

Routing over Frame Relay

1. Topologies 1.1 Full Mesh The simplest Frame Relay topology is the Full Mesh topology, where each router has a dedicated virtual circuit to another router. Unfortunately this design is rarely found in real life because each additional circuit costs. Of course, having so many circuits available makes it easy …

MPLS 101

1. Labels MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) adds a 4 Byte header between the Layer 2 and Layer 3 header for each label. The header has 4 fields: 20 bits – Label – locally significant on the link (similar to Frame Relay DLCI) 3 bits – EXP – used for …

BGP Attributes

1. BGP Data Structures 1.1 Neighbor Table The address in the bgp summary table shows the IP used in the peering, not the Router ID. 1.2 BGP Table Lists all prefixes learned from all peers If no routes towards a destination show the “>” code, you should investigate why no …

BGP 101

1. Starting the Routing Process 1.1 Define the routing process Only one BGP process can run on a router and it can be started using: The AS Number used to be a 16 bits number ranging from 0 to 65535. According to RFC 4893, the AS number can have 32 …